Generated with sparks and insights from 14 sources

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Introduction

  • Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI): A 22-item measure developed by Peter Glick and Susan Fiske in 1996 to assess ambivalently sexist attitudes.

  • Hostile Sexism (HS): Reflects overtly negative evaluations and stereotypes about women.

  • Benevolent Sexism (BS): Represents evaluations of women that appear subjectively positive but are damaging to gender equality.

  • Ambivalence Toward Men Inventory (AMI): A counterpart to the ASI, assessing ambivalent attitudes toward men.

  • Critiques: Some argue that the ASI conflates unfavorable views of feminists with sexism against women and that it does not consider the truthfulness of certain beliefs.

  • Reliability and Validity: The ASI has demonstrated strong empirical reliability and validity across various studies and cultures.

Ambivalent Sexism Inventory [1]

  • Developed by Peter Glick and Susan Fiske in 1996.

  • Consists of 22 items measuring ambivalently sexist attitudes.

  • Uses a 6-point Likert scale for responses.

  • Includes two sub-scales: Hostile Sexism (HS) and Benevolent Sexism (BS).

  • Sample item from HS: 'Women are too easily offended.'

  • Sample item from BS: 'Women should be cherished and protected by men.'

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Hostile and Benevolent Sexism [1]

  • Hostile Sexism (HS): Overtly negative evaluations and stereotypes about women.

  • Examples of HS: Beliefs that women are incompetent, unintelligent, overly emotional, and sexually manipulative.

  • Benevolent Sexism (BS): Evaluations that appear positive but are damaging to gender equality.

  • Examples of BS: Reverence of women in traditional roles, romanticizing women as objects of affection, and the belief that men should protect women.

  • Both forms of sexism reinforce traditional gender roles and patriarchal structures.

  • HS and BS can coexist in individuals, leading to ambivalent attitudes.

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Critiques of ASI [2]

  • Critique 1: ASI conflates unfavorable views of feminists with sexism against women.

  • Critique 2: The AMI uses a more neutral tone towards negative beliefs about men.

  • Critique 3: ASI does not consider the truthfulness of certain beliefs.

  • Example: Belief that 'men are more willing to take risks than women' is backed by evidence but classified as a positive view of men.

  • Critique 4: Some items may not seem sexist individually but are statistically related to other measures of sexism.

  • Critique 5: The ASI is a self-reported measure, which can be influenced by social desirability bias.

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Reliability and Validity [1]

  • The ASI has demonstrated strong empirical reliability over time.

  • Cronbach's alpha coefficient above 0.80 suggests strong reliability.

  • The ASI effectively measures ambivalently sexist attitudes.

  • Over fifteen years of research support the ASI's reliability and validity.

  • The ASI captures both hostile and benevolent attitudes towards women.

  • The ASI is unique in its ability to measure both dimensions of sexism.

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Cross-Cultural Validity

  • The ASI has extensive support for cross-cultural validity.

  • A study in 19 countries found that hostile and benevolent sexism are not culturally specific.

  • Ambivalently sexist attitudes towards men also exist cross-culturally.

  • The ASI has been translated and validated in multiple languages.

  • Research supports the ASI's applicability in diverse cultural contexts.

  • The ASI's cross-cultural validity enhances its utility in global research.

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Applications and Impact

  • The ASI is used in educational resources and population research.

  • It helps in understanding the impact of sexism on gender-based violence.

  • The ASI is used to study the effects of sexism in professional and educational settings.

  • It has been applied to research on voting behavior and political campaigns.

  • The ASI informs interventions aimed at reducing gender inequality.

  • It is used to explore the role of sexism in shaping social and cultural norms.

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Related Videos

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<div class="-md-ext-youtube-widget"> { "title": "Forms of Sexism (Old-fashioned, Modern, & Ambivalent Sexism)", "link": "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ylUhAtapzM", "channel": { "name": ""}, "published_date": "Jul 22, 2021", "length": "" }</div>

<div class="-md-ext-youtube-widget"> { "title": "Understanding the Differences Between Ambivalent, Hostile ...", "link": "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-kc8ohh3OY", "channel": { "name": ""}, "published_date": "1 month ago", "length": "" }</div>