Generated with sparks and insights from 19 sources

img6

img7

img8

img9

img10

img11

Introduction

  • Definition: Ambivalent Sexism Theory posits that sexism has two sub-components: hostile sexism (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS).

  • Hostile Sexism: Reflects overtly negative evaluations and stereotypes about a gender, such as the belief that women are incompetent and inferior to men.

  • Benevolent Sexism: Represents evaluations of gender that may appear subjectively positive but are actually damaging to gender equality, such as the belief that women need to be protected by men.

  • Origins: The theory was developed by social psychologists Peter Glick and Susan Fiske in 1996.

  • Ambivalence: The term 'ambivalent' is used because this type of sexism includes both negative and positive evaluations of women.

  • Impact: Both forms of sexism reinforce traditional gender roles and preserve patriarchal social structures.

  • Measurement: The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) is a 22-item self-report measure used to assess ambivalently sexist attitudes.

Hostile Sexism [1]

  • Definition: Hostile sexism reflects overtly negative evaluations and stereotypes about a gender.

  • Examples: Beliefs that women are incompetent, unintelligent, overly emotional, and sexually manipulative.

  • Misogyny: Hostile sexism is often associated with misogyny, the hatred of women by men.

  • Impact: It reinforces traditional gender roles and maintains patriarchal social structures.

  • Identification: Hostile sexism is typically easier for people to identify as an expression of prejudice.

img6

img7

img8

img9

img10

img11

Benevolent Sexism [1]

  • Definition: Benevolent sexism represents evaluations of gender that may appear subjectively positive but are actually damaging to gender equality.

  • Examples: Beliefs that women need to be protected by men, should be cherished, and are pure.

  • Impact: These beliefs restrict women's personal, professional, political, and social opportunities.

  • Perception: Benevolent sexism may not appear harmful on the surface but reinforces traditional gender roles.

  • Identification: People often do not identify benevolent sexism as a form of gender-based prejudice.

img6

img7

img8

Ambivalent Sexism Inventory [1]

  • Purpose: The ASI is used to measure an individual's endorsement of ambivalent sexism.

  • Structure: It is a 22-item self-report measure with two sub-scales: hostile sexism and benevolent sexism.

  • Sample Items: Hostile sexism item - 'Women are too easily offended.' Benevolent sexism item - 'Women should be cherished and protected by men.'

  • Reliability: The ASI has demonstrated strong empirical reliability over time.

  • Cross-Cultural Validity: The ASI is supported for use across different cultures.

img6

img7

img8

Impact on Relationships [1]

  • Preferences: Women with higher levels of benevolent sexism prefer men with financial security; men with higher levels of hostile sexism value physical attractiveness.

  • Mate Selection: Benevolent sexism predicts mate selection, while hostile sexism predicts marriage norms.

  • Attraction: Women find men high in benevolent sexism attractive but rate men high in ambivalent sexism as less attractive.

  • Protective Paternalism: Women endorse more protective paternalistic beliefs in romantic contexts.

  • Premarital Sex: Both benevolent and hostile sexism are associated with beliefs that premarital sex is unacceptable for women.

img6

img7

img8

Impact in the Workplace [1]

  • Cognitive Performance: Benevolent sexism can hinder a woman's confidence and performance.

  • Performance Evaluation: Hostile sexism negatively impacts women's evaluations and recommendations for promotion.

  • Glass Ceiling: Hostile sexist attitudes contribute to the glass ceiling effect.

  • Professional Evaluations: Benevolent sexist attitudes lead to lower professional evaluations from both men and women.

  • Help-Seeking: Benevolent sexism affects women's willingness to seek help and their feelings about seeking help.

img6

img7

img8

img9

img10

img11

Historical Perspectives [1]

  • Ancient Roots: Ambivalent sexism has historical foundations, seen in ancient stories like Homer's 'The Odyssey.'

  • Evolution: The attitudes of both benevolent and hostile sexism have evolved over millennia.

  • Media Representation: Historical sexism influences contemporary media representations of gender roles.

  • Modern Media: Modern media both supports and challenges historical sexist viewpoints.

  • Comparative Analysis: Examines how ambivalent sexism has persisted and manifests in today's media.

img6

Research Findings [1]

  • Sexual Harassment: Hostile sexism is associated with acceptance of sexual harassment.

  • Intimate Partner Violence: Hostile sexism predicts tolerance of intimate partner violence.

  • Rape: Men high in hostile sexism are more likely to rape women; benevolent sexism predicts victim-blaming.

  • Voting Behavior: Ambivalent sexism influenced voting intentions in the 2016 US presidential election.

  • Political Campaigns: Gender-focused criticisms in campaigns can trigger sexist attitudes.

Related Videos

<br><br>

<div class="-md-ext-youtube-widget"> { "title": "Forms of Sexism (Old-fashioned, Modern, & Ambivalent Sexism)", "link": "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ylUhAtapzM", "channel": { "name": ""}, "published_date": "Jul 22, 2021", "length": "" }</div>

<div class="-md-ext-youtube-widget"> { "title": "Sexism Without Hatred?- the psychology of ambivalent sexism", "link": "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GuSSAQzkBqY", "channel": { "name": ""}, "published_date": "Jan 18, 2022", "length": "" }</div>

<div class="-md-ext-youtube-widget"> { "title": "Benevolent Sexism (B.A. Creative Industries Management)", "link": "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X0Im1XhIigs", "channel": { "name": ""}, "published_date": "Apr 28, 2022", "length": "" }</div>