Generated with sparks and insights from 72 sources

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Introduction

  • The first well-documented search engine was Archie, created by Alan Emtage in 1990.

  • Archie was designed to search for FTP files and did not index the contents of these files.

  • The World Wide Web was initially indexed by hand, with a list of web servers maintained by Tim Berners-Lee.

  • In 1993, the first web search engine, W3Catalog, was released.

  • WebCrawler, launched in 1994, was the first search engine to allow full-text search of web pages.

  • Google, founded in 1998, became the dominant search engine in the 2000s with its PageRank algorithm.

  • Other notable early search engines include Yahoo! Search, Lycos, AltaVista, and Excite.

Early Search Engines [1]

  • Archie: Created in 1990 by Alan Emtage to search for FTP files.

  • Veronica and Jughead: Developed to search Gopher index systems in the early 1990s.

  • W3Catalog: Released in 1993, the first primitive web search engine.

  • Aliweb: Launched in 1993, did not use a web robot but relied on site administrators.

  • JumpStation: Created in December 1993, combined crawling, indexing, and searching.

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Development in the 1990s [1]

  • WebCrawler: Launched in 1994, allowed full-text search of web pages.

  • Lycos: Started at Carnegie Mellon University in 1994, became a major commercial endeavor.

  • Yahoo! Search: Added a search function to Yahoo! Directory in 1995.

  • AltaVista: Launched in 1995, known for its fast search capabilities.

  • Netscape: Struck deals with five major search engines in 1996 for exclusive browser features.

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Rise of Google [1]

  • Founded in 1998 by Larry Page and Sergey Brin.

  • PageRank Algorithm: Ranked web pages based on the number and quality of links.

  • Minimalist Interface: Focused on search without additional web portal features.

  • Dominance: Became the most popular search engine by the early 2000s.

  • Acquisitions: Acquired other search technologies to enhance its capabilities.

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Modern Search Engines [1]

  • Bing: Launched by Microsoft in 2009, rebranded from MSN Search.

  • DuckDuckGo: Focuses on user privacy and does not track search history.

  • Baidu: The most popular search engine in China, launched in 2000.

  • Yandex: Dominates the search market in Russia.

  • Ecosia: A search engine that plants trees with its ad revenue.

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Search Engine Technology [1]

  • Web Crawling: Automated bots that index web pages.

  • Indexing: Associating words and tokens with domain names and HTML fields.

  • Search Algorithms: Determine the relevance and ranking of search results.

  • PageRank: Google's algorithm that ranks pages based on link quality.

  • Data Centers: Distributed computing systems that support search engines.

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Search Engine Bias [1]

  • Economic Bias: Advertisers can influence search rankings.

  • Political Bias: Search results may be censored to comply with local laws.

  • Social Bias: Algorithms may favor popular viewpoints over non-normative ones.

  • Geographical Bias: Major search engines often prioritize U.S.-based sites.

  • Google Bombing: Manipulating search results for political or social reasons.

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Customized Results

  • Filter Bubbles: Search engines provide results based on user activity history.

  • Echo Chambers: Users see information that agrees with their past viewpoints.

  • DuckDuckGo: A search engine that avoids tracking and filter bubbles.

  • Algorithmic Personalization: Tailors search results to individual users.

  • Criticism: Some scholars argue there is little evidence for significant filter bubbles.

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Related Videos

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